|B.C.||Year of Nebuchadnezzar
|King of Judah||Number of Captives||Passage||Notes|
|2K. 24:1; 2Chr. 36:6-7; Dan. 1:1-3+||Daniel and a limited number of other Jews, including nobles and Jehoiakim’s descendants, taken to Babylon.|
|Jer. 52:28||The accession year value of 7 (Jer. 52:28) becomes 8 in non-accession year reckoning.5 See column heading.|
|2K. 24:10-16; Eze. 1:1-2||Jehoiachin, Mordecai’s great-grandfather Kish (Est. 2:6)7 and Ezekiel taken captive (Eze. 1:2; 40:1).|
|Jer. 52:29||The accession year value of 18 (Jer. 52:29) becomes 19 in non-accession year reckoning. See column heading.|
|2K. 25:1-12; Jer. 39:8-14; 52:12-15; Eze. 33:21||Fall of Jerusalem
Siege began in Zedekiah’s 9th year (Z9/10/10)9 . The wall of Jerusalem is penetrated 18 months later (Z11/4/9). Zedekiah taken. Nebuzaradan arrives (Z11/5/7), Jerusalem and temple burned and the walls broken down. Jeremiah released by Babylonians.10
|Jer. 52:30||Following Gedaliah’s assassination. The accession year value of 23 (Jer. 52:30) becomes 24 in non-accession year reckoning. See column heading.|
1 Illustration from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493). Image courtesy of Michel Wolgemut, Wilhelm Pleydenwerff. Image is in the public domain.
2 The values given in Jer. 52:28-30 use the accession year system and have been converted to non-accession year equivalents. “Jer. 52:28-30 gives the number of captives taken by Nebuchadnezzar in his seventh, eighteenth, and twenty-third years. There is one thing certain about the counting of captives—the captives themselves are in no position to do it. Every king and pharaoh must have had an official assigned to this task, so that the number of those vanquished could be recorded on a stela or in the annals glorifying the king’s exploits. Thus the list of captives in Jer. 52:28-30 could not have originated in a Judean record—it came from the official records of Nebuchadnezzar. The years of the monarch would therefore be the Nisan, accession years used in Babylon. This is an independent verification of the use of non-accession years when Jeremiah and the author of the last two chapters of 2 Kings referred to Nebuchadnezzar: the seventh (accession) year of Jer. 52:28 corresponds to the eighth (non-accession) year of 2K. 24:12, and the eighteenth (accession) year of Jer. 52:29 corresponds to the nineteenth (non-accession) year of 2K. 25:8. These are not mistakes, as some have assumed. They are a valuable clue that the synchronisms to Nebuchadnezzar in 2 Kings were to be taken in a non-accession sense. The 52nd chapter is not . . . from the pen of Jeremiah (Jer. 51:64).”—Roger C. Young, “When Did Jerusalem Fall?,” in Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, vol. 47 no. 1 (Evangelical Theological Society, March 2004), 36-37. See Accession Year.
3 Jeremiah 25:1 is associated with the battle of Carchemish after which some chronologists believe Daniel was taken. “During the summer of 605 B.C., which was both Jehoiakim’s fourth year and Nebuchadnezzar’s first year by non-accession reckoning (Jer 25:1), Nebuchadnezzar attacked Jerusalem. Daniel, using accession year reckoning, called it Jehoiakim’s third year (Dan 1:1+).”—Andrew E Steinmann, From Abraham to Paul: A Biblical Chronology (St. Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House, 2011), 158. We follow Anderson who believes Daniel was taken prior to the battle of Carchemish. “The Bible states that there was a deportation in the reign of Jehoiakim . . . Nothing can be clearer than the language of Chronicles (2Chr. 36:6) . . . Kings gives clear corroboration of Chronicles. Speaking of Jehoiakim, it says: ‘In his days Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant three years; then he turned and rebelled against him’ (2K. 24:1). Daniel (Dan. 1:1+) tells us this was in his third year, and that Jerusalem was besieged upon the occasion.”—Robert Anderson, Daniel in the Critic’s Den (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1909, 1990), 15. See commentary on Daniel 1:1.
4 Charles H. Dyer, “Jeremiah,” in John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck, eds., The Bible Knowledge Commentary (Wheaton, IL: SP Publications, 1983), 1:1205.
5 “[A] Babylonian tablet states that Nebuchadnezzar in the seventh year of his reign made an expedition to the Hatti-land in the month of Kislev (17 December 598 to 15 January 597). He besieged Jerusalem and captured the city on 2 Adar (Saturday, 16 March) 597. The king of Jerusalem was taken prisoner and a new king was placed on the throne. . . . The biblical account places the capture of Jerusalem in the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 24:12), but the Babylonian account places it in the seventh year. The Babylonian account is in accord with Nisan regnal years and the biblical account starts the years of Nebuchadnezzar with Tishri. . . . The last half of the Babylonian Nisan year overlaps the first half of the Hebrew Tishri year. Thus Jerusalem fell to Nebuchadnezzar in his seventh year according to his own reckoning but in his eighth year according to the reckoning in Kings. The overlap was from Tishri in the fall of 598 to Nisan in the spring of 597. Since Jerusalem fell in Adar, the last month of the Babylonian year, this was in the spring of 597.”—Edwin R. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1983), 186.
6 “The Babylonian Chronicles date the siege and the deportation of King Jehoiachin (Jeconiah) of Judah from the 7th year of Nebuchadnezzar. . . . However the Hebrew account seems to conflict with the Babylonian record as it declares that the second deportation which brought Jehoiachin to Babylon . . . occurred in the 8th year of Nebuchadnezzar (2Ki 24:10-12). The ‘discrepancy’ resolves itself when it is seen that the Hebrews count the accession year of foreign monarchs as their first year of reigning. Thus Nebuchadnezzar’s 7th year by Babylonian dating becomes his 8th by Hebrew reckoning.”—Floyd Nolen Jones, Chronology of the Old Testament: A Return to Basics, 4th ed. (The Woodlands, TX: KingsWord Press, 1993, 1999), 132., “There is an apparent discrepancy in the chronology in the fact that 2K. 24:12 dates the taking of Jerusalem and the capture of Jehoiachin in the eighth year of Nebuchadnezzar rather than the seventh year as per the Babylonian Chronicle. But it will be remembered that in Judah the kings’ years were counted from Tishri 1 in the fall (rather than from Nisan 1 in the spring as the Babylonians did), and if the Tishri year was applied to Nebuchadnezzar his first regnal year would begin a half-year earlier on Tishri 1 (Oct 7) 605, his eighth year would start Tishri 1 (Oct 20) 598 and extend to the last day of Elul (Oct 8) 597 . . . and the campaign of Nebuchadnezzar beginning in Kislimu (Nov/Dec) 598 and the fall of Jerusalem, capture of Jehoiachin, and appointment of Zedekiah would all fall within this year correctly.”—Jack Finegan, Handbook of Biblical Chronology (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1964, 1998), 256. “[Some] have suggested that the first two deportations listed in Jer. 52:28-30 were not the same as those in 2 Kings but were minor ones preceding the major deportations associated with Nebuchadnezzar’s capture of the city in 597 and 586 B.C. Two arguments are said to support this second view. First, the years given (the 7th and 18th years of Nebuchadnezzar) are each one year earlier than the years given in 2 Kings for the two major assaults on Jerusalem by Babylon (the ‘8th,’ 2 Kings 25:8-12, years of Nebuchadnezzar). Second, the numbers of captives who were exiled in these deportations do not correspond with the numbers taken during the 597 and 586 deportations. In 597 about 10,000 people were taken (2 Kings 24:14), but Jeremiah 52:28 mentions only 3,023. In 586 Nebuchadnezzar deported ‘the people who remained in the city, along with the rest of the populace and those who had gone over to the king’ (2 Kings 25:11). The figure in Jeremiah 52:29 of 832 seems far too low to correspond to this final deportation. So according to this second view it seems reasonable to assume that these two deportations in verses 28-29 are secondary deportations. The author included them (along with a third minor deportation, v. 30) to show the full extent of Babylon’s destruction of Judah.”—Dyer, Jeremiah, 1:1205. See also [C. W. Eduard Naegelsbach, “The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah,” in John Peter Lange, ed., A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Critical, Doctrinal, and Homiletical (New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1880), Jer. 52:28].
7 In Esther 2:6, the NKJV inserts the name Kish in italics indicating the word is not found in the original. This may be unwarranted: “From [Est. 2:5-6] it is perfectly clear that Mordecai is the man whom the writer means to indicate as having been carried away with Jeconiah in the 8th year of Nebuchadnezzar. His name appears as one of the leaders of those who returned with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:2, Neh. 7:7), but in consequence of the misdating of the Books of Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther, this verse has been misinterpreted, and made to mean that it was not Mordecai, but Kish, his grandfather, who was carried away with Jeconiah.”—Martin Anstey, The Romance of Bible Chronology: The Treatise (Vol 1) (London, England: Marshall Brothers Ltd., 1913), 224.
8 Anstey, The Romance of Bible Chronology: The Treatise (Vol 1), 226.
9 The 9th year, 10th month, 10th day of the reign of Zedekiah (Z9).
10 “Thus Nebuchadnezzar began his siege of Jerusalem in the ninth year of Zedekiah, on the tenth day of the tenth month (2K. 25:1; Jer. 52:4), in the eleventh year, the fourth month, and the ninth day, the city wall was broken through (2K. 25:3-4); in the seventh day of the fifth month of the nineteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuchadnezzar came to Jerusalem and destroyed its temple, palace, and walls (2K. 25:8-10); and on the fifth day of the tenth month of that year, which was the twelfth year of Jehoiachin’s captivity, word of the fall of Jerusalem reached the exiles in Babylon (Eze. 33:21).”—Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 35.
11 [Dyer, Jeremiah, 1:1205], [Yohanan Aharoni and Michael Avi-Yonah, The Macmillan Bible Atlas (New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1993), 125], [Steinmann, From Abraham to Paul: A Biblical Chronology, 172].