Promises and Failure
Israel had all these privileges:
the giving of the law,
the service of God,
Yet she rejected her Messiah!
9:6 - God's Word Hasn't Failed
"it is not that the word of God"
"It is not"
Ouk hOIon de =
"but not such as"
"but not in a similar way."
In other words, the Word of God has not stumbled in a similar way
as Israel when she rejected her Messiah.
"has taken no effect"
"Has taken no effect"
ekPEPtōken : having fallen away
( Gal. 5:4 )
, to drift off-course and run aground
( Acts 27:17 )
Can the church of Jesus Christ--God's people--rely upon God's Word when it failed the Jews?
9:6 - Not All Israel
"they are not all Israel who are of Israel"
A strict superset / subset relationship:
Superset: those who are "of Israel" (Jacob's physical descendants).
Subset: those who are
, but who are
(the faithful remnant
The Believing Remnant from among National Israel
9:7 - Seed of Abraham
"nor are they all children"
Why is God the God of
"Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob"
), but not the God of
"Abraham, Ishmael, and Nebajoth"
Because the line of promise started at Abraham
( Gen. 12:3 )
, went to Isaac
and then to Jacob
( Gen. 28:13 )
"In Isaac your seed shall be called."
where God promises to build a nation called by God through Isaac.
(Ishmael will also father a nation, but not a
The calling of the
is similar to the calling of the
individual believer( Rom. 8:30 )
, but differs in that it involves a
physical line of descent
which individual salvation does not.
9:8 - Flesh vs. Promise
"children of the flesh"
This refers to the physical descendants of Abraham who were
not party to the promise, including the offspring of
"children of the promise"
These are the physical descendants of Abraham in the line of promise
9:8 - Children of God
Not a comparison between Spiritual and Physical
Paul is making a comparison
between two physical lines
of descent to illustrate God's sovereignty.
He then uses this analogy to illustrate a difference
within a physical line
The believing remnant are the
"children of God,"
the others are the
"not all Israel"
( Rom. 9:6 )
physical line of promise
from the line of Abraham
is analogous to the
spiritually faithful remnant
within the line from Israel.
"counted as the seed"
"to think according to logical rules,"
"to look on as."
9:9 - Word of Promise
"Sarah shall have a son."
Although Abraham longed for Ishmael to be recognized
( Gen. 17:18 )
, the promise--initiated by God--identifies
Sarah's offspring, not the offspring of Hagar
( Gen. 18:10 )
9:10 - By One Man
"And not only this"
The connective phrase indicates that Paul is giving another,
more powerful example to illustrate his point.
"by one man"
is not the typical
andras (man, husband), but
KOItēn . This is
Unlike Ishmael and Isaac who were of a single father, but
Esau and Jacob had the same mother
More than that, they were
-- conceived in the same act of union
( Gen. 25:21-24 )
9:11 - According to Election
"the purpose of God according to election might stand"
"divine selection for a purpose or task."
That the visible divine purpose according to God's divine selection might continue.
"not of works, but of Him who calls"
"Him who calls"
tou kalOUNtos from
kalEō , which recalls the
which applies to every believer
( Rom. 8:30 )
Paul's Examples Compared
Isaac and Ishmael
Jacob and Esau
Sarah and Hagar
After Ishmael born.
9:12 - Older Serves Younger
"the older shall serve the younger"
Not only is the blessing of Jacob over Esau determined
but it also involves a
of the norm (normally the firstborn has precedence).
This is true of both of Paul's examples--further emphasizing the
sovereignty of God.
9:13 - Jacob I Have Loved
"Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have hated."
Comparative Use: Favor vs. Disfavor.
These two terms often appear together in a comparative way
( Deu. 21:15, LXX )
. Jesus said those who would follow Him must
their father and mother, wife and children, brothers and sisters,
and their own life
( Luke 14:26 )
. Yet we are clearly to honor our mother and father
( Ex. 20:12 )
and sacrificially love our wife
( Eph. 5:28-33 )
The election of Jacob over Esau occurred before their birth
). The statement that God
Esau refers to his offspring, the nation of Edom
( Mal. 1:1-4 )
and occurs in response to their
Here again, we see the juxtaposition of
Divine Sovereignty and Human Responsibility
for his actions. Examples:
Judas' betrayal of Christ
( Mat. 26:24 )
Crucifixion of Jesus by men according to the purpose of God
1. God is Sovereign
We can do nothing of substance without His involvement
( John 15:5 )
2. The Word Cannot be Broken
The Word of God is absolutely dependable. He knows the future.
He cannot lie.
It will come to pass!
We can trust our lives to it.
3. Elect within Israel
Even now, as at all times, God is working with a
within national Israel.
Although they are part of the body of Christ, the Church,
His promises to the nation continue in them.