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Articles published by various authors. (More recent articles appear first.)

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The Rapture - Part 25
by Andy Woods


In this article, we observe that post-tribulationism errs in failing to understand that the divine promise of Revelation 3:10 conveys a complete escape not only from coming Tribulation judgments but also the very time of those judgments.
(182)
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The Forgotten Covenant
by Paul Henebury


Biblical Covenantalism tracks the covenants through Scripture for the sake of putting together a composite picture of God’s plan. The covenants are the backbone of Scripture. If we pay careful attention to these covenants as they arise, we will not be able to bypass the everlasting “covenant of peace” which God made with Phinehas and his descendants in Numbers 25.
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Some Mud That Sticks: An Insider’s Criticism of Dispensationalism
by Paul Henebury


It is our opinion that dispensationalism can be (and ought to be) wedded to a full-orbed systematic world and life view, but only if it begins to take itself more seriously and starts the painful process of self-examination. In order to do this it must divest itself of the pragmatic outlook that it often clings to, and which spoils its thinking and stunts its theological development.
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The Rapture - Part 24
by Andy Woods


This article continues an examination of the weaknesses associated with Rapture views which differ from the pretribulational Rapture position. Post-tribulationism errs in failing to acknowledge that although believers will be exempted from some of the judgments during the Tribulation period, they will still experience many other judgments during this same time period.
(179)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 26
by Andy Woods


Perhaps the primary reason advanced by kingdom now theologians in their attempt to equate God's present work in the church with the present, spiritual manifestation of the Messianic kingdom is that following His Ascension Christ supposedly took His seat on David's Throne in heaven. From this regal position He now orchestrates the spiritual Messianic kingdom through the church. However, it is far better to reject the notion that the Davidic Kingdom is present in any sense today and instead to maintain that the Davidic Kingdom will not be inaugurated until the millennial age. At least six reasons exist in support of this conclusion.
(178)
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The Rapture - Part 23
by Andy Woods


This article continues an examination of the weaknesses associated with Rapture views which differ from the pretribulational Rapture position.
(177)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 25
by Andy Woods


This article continues an examination of passages that "kingdom now" theologians routinely employ in order to argue that the kingdom is a present spiritual reality.
(176)
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Faith and Reason in Christian Perspective
by Paul Henebury


It appears to me that one of the first things a faithful theologian needs to do is to straighten out the confusion brought about by the world’s separation of faith and reason. This relationship is so vital to a biblically fastened worldview that to neglect it will involve the believer in a host of conflicting beliefs and practices. For it is just here that the negligent Christian theologue will be attacked
(175)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 24
by Andy Woods


This article continues an examination of passages that "kingdom now" theologians routinely employ in order to argue that the kingdom is a present spiritual reality.
(174)
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The Rapture - Part 22
by Andy Woods


This article continues an examination of the weaknesses associated with Rapture views which differ from the pretribulational Rapture position.
(173)
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The Dispensational and Kingdom Implications of the "Lord’s Prayer" in Matthew 6:9-13
by Andy Woods


In light of the so called "Lord's Prayer" in Matthew 6:9-13, the whole notion that Christ already established the kingdom in spiritual form at His First Advent becomes unlikely, if not impossible. This paper was presented at the 2014 Chafer Theological Seminary Pastors' Conference, March 12, 2014.
(172)
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The Rapture - Part 21
by Andy Woods


This article continues an examination of the weaknesses associated with Rapture views which differ from the pretribulational Rapture position.
(171)
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Renewing Dispensational Theology: A Suggested Path
by Paul Henebury


Here are some thoughts on five sectors of truth where Dispensational Theology might be renewed.
(170)
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Servant Leadership
by Tony Garland


The leadership example set by Jesus is vastly different than the executive style leadership promoted by the culture.
(169)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 23
by Andy Woods


This article continues an examination of passages that "kingdom now" theologians routinely employ in order to argue that the kingdom is a present spiritual reality.
(168)
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The Rapture - Part 20
by Andy Woods


This article begins to explore some of the weaknesses associated with Rapture views which differ from the pretribulational Rapture position.
(167)
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Antitheism Presupposes Theism
by Paul Henebury


The assertion of presuppositional apologetics is not that unbelievers do not know things. It is that they are unable to account for what they know using their unbelieving outlooks. And if they cannot account for the their arguments from within their own outlook, they should give it up and find one that does account for it. And Christian presuppositionalists claim that the only outlook or worldview which accounts for facts, values, logic, justice, beauty, etc. is the Christian worldview of the Bible.
(166)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 22
by Andy Woods


This article continues an examination of passages that "kingdom now" theologians routinely employ in order to argue that the kingdom is a present spiritual reality.
(165)
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The Rapture - Part 19
by Andy Woods


The seventh and final reason that the rapture will take place before the Tribulation period begins relates to the fact that the symbolic parallels of the days of Noah and Lot mandate that God's people must first be taken out of harm's way before the pouring out of divine judgment.
(164)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 21
by Andy Woods


This article continues an examination of passages that "kingdom now" theologians routinely employ in order to argue that the kingdom is a present spiritual reality.
(163)
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The Rapture - Part 18
by Andy Woods


Exactly how does the Holy Spirit today hold back the Antichrist? In the present Church-Age, the Holy Spirit permanently indwells every true child of God.
(162)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 20
by Andy Woods


This article continues an examination of passages that "kingdom now" theologians routinely employ in order to argue that the kingdom is a present spiritual reality.
(161)
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The Rapture - Part 17
by Andy Woods


The sixth reason that the rapture will take place before the Tribulation period begins is due to the fact that the Antichrist cannot even come forward until the Holy Spirit's restraining ministry through the church is first removed.
(160)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 19
by Andy Woods


This article examines passages that "kingdom now" theologians routinely employ in order to argue that the kingdom is a present spiritual reality.
(159)
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Leadership Limited by Finances or Gifting?
by Tony Garland


Too often, opportunities for pastoral service and growth are limited by the perception that leadership roles within the church must be fully financed positions: either because it is unfair to expect leadership involvement without such remuneration or because serving as a pastor is deemed to be so consuming as to make simultaneously “working with ones hands” impractical.
(158)
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Authority Inversion: The Subversion of Pastoral Leadership
by Tony Garland


A troubling situation many pastors find themselves in today is that of occupying a place of apparent leadership, but lacking true authority. The office of pastor, which scripture establishes as the source of leadership and authority within a local fellowship, can be hindered and even subverted by church practices which have more in common with cultural expectations than the teaching of the New Testament.
(157)
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What is Progressive Revelation?
by Paul Henebury


It appears that if we are going to preserve a concept of progressive revelation which does justice to the normal meaning of both words, we will have to accept a definition which incorporates the idea of traceability from A to Z and back again. This will require of us that we do not employ the term if we believe the revelation has been “subject to change” (Horton) in the OT, or once we have passed from the OT into the New. If we think any “transformation” (Beale) has taken place, we are better off adopting a different term so as to avoid confusing people.
(156)
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The Rapture - Part 16
by Andy Woods


The fifth reason that the rapture will take place before the Tribulation period even begins relates to the fact the rapture doctrine is designed to comfort the believer.
(155)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 18
by Andy Woods


Some believe Christ inaugurated the kingdom in spiritual form during His First Advent. One way of showing the implausibility of such a proposition is by exploring the true meaning of the so-called "Lord's Prayer" found in Matthew 6:9-13.
(154)
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The Rapture - Part 15
by Andy Woods


The fourth reason that the rapture will take place before the Tribulation period even begins relates to the fact the rapture is an imminent event. In other words, the rapture could happen at any moment.
(153)
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The Rapture - Part 14
by Andy Woods


The third reason that the rapture will take place before the Tribulation period even begins relates to the fact the church has been promised to be exempted from divine wrath and yet, the Tribulation period is an expression of divine wrath.
(152)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 17
by Andy Woods


If Matthew 6:9-13 is in actuality a model prayer for the disciples consisting of three requests for the kingdom to come and three additional requests for their temporal needs to be met prior to the kingdom's establishment, then it becomes obvious that the Lord did not establish the kingdom at His First Advent. Otherwise, the "Disciples' Prayer" becomes nonsensical. After all, why pray for the coming of the kingdom and make additional requests until its establishment if the kingdom were already a present reality?
(151)
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The Rapture - Part 13
by Andy Woods


Before the events of the Tribulation period unfold upon the earth (Rev. 6-19), the Apocalypse depicts the twenty-four elders, representing the church, as already being in heaven before the earthly tribulation judgments even begin (Rev. 4-5). A logical and natural explanation for this location is that the church has already been raptured to heaven before the Tribulation period begins.
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Biblical Covenants and Normative Hermeneutics
by Paul Henebury


My concern in this article is to address this phenomenon of prophetic makeover. How can God express Himself in the most forceful language of commitment to Israel and not mean what He is saying (Jer. 31-33)? How can God make a solemn oath to accomplish stipulations which He and no one else has placed upon Himself and proceed to "expand" these stipulations beyond all recognition (Gen. 15)? And what, if anything, gives Christians the right to re-interpret the language of God’s unilateral promises to the Patriarchs? Where is the “wiggle room” in the covenant obligations which Jehovah placed Himself under?
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A Brief History of Biblical Interpretation
by Paul Henebury


The history of the interpretation of the Bible is a long and involved one. For many centuries people have approached the Scriptures supposing that it should be interpreted literally whenever possible, or that one ought to look deeper than the surface meaning to find its true spiritual center. Still others have believed that the Old and (to a lesser extent) the New Testament is opened up by means of three or four hermeneutical categories. In this paper we shall try to review the main schools of interpretation, especially throughout the history of the Church.
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 16
by Andy Woods


Considering that a careful Genesis to Revelation survey very clearly indicates that the kingdom is a future and postponed reality, why do so many evangelicals believe that the Messianic kingdom has already materialized or is within the power of the modern church to set up? Is there a biblical basis for such a "kingdom-now" belief?
(147)
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The Rapture - Part 12
by Andy Woods


The second reason that the rapture will take place before the Tribulation period even begins relates to the absence of any reference to the church on earth in Revelation 4-19. This point becomes clearer upon considering the broad structure of the Book of Revelation.
(146)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 15
by Andy Woods


The same handful of New Testament texts are routinely and consistently employed in an attempt to argue for "kingdom now" theology. The purpose of subsequent articles is to scrutinize those passages that "kingdom now" theologians routinely use and to demonstrate that these texts really do not prove "kingdom now" theology. This article will set forth some general problems with a New Testament based kingdom now interpretation.
(145)
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A Guide to the "New Perspective on Paul"
by Paul Henebury


Proponents of the New Perspective on Paul allow their relative comprehension of facets of Second Temple Judaism (roughly 500 B.C. to 70 A.D.) to cloud their reading of the New Testament, and especially of the Apostle Paul. Read as sufficient in itself, the New Testament sets out a clear picture of Jewish antagonism to the Gospel; not because of narrow covenantal boundary-markers, but because “seeking to establish their own righteousness, [they] have not submitted to the righteousness of God” – Romans 10:3.
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The Rapture - Part 11
by Andy Woods


Regarding "when" the rapture will occur, believers can develop certainty that they will be raptured before the tribulation period for at least seven reasons. The first reason is that the tribulation's ultimate purpose concerns Israel rather than the church.
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 14
by Andy Woods


The rule of the Father through the last Adam, God the Son, over creation will continue eternally in the New Heavens and Earth.
(142)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 13
by Andy Woods


Revelation 20:1-10 is the only passage that specifies the kingdom's duration of one-thousand years. Here, John makes six references to the kingdom's one-thousand year length. Many commentators attach little significance to the expression “thousand years” on the grounds that this number should be interpreted non-literally. Their thinking is that since Revelation is a symbolic book, the number "one thousand" should also be rendered non-literally.
(141)
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Remembering Dr. Mal Couch
by Tony Garland


Dr. Couch understood the importance of the line of great teachers who paved the way before us. He was also tireless in his labors for Our Lord and his love of Israel.
(140)
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The Passing of Dr. Mal Couch
by Andy Woods


On February 12th, 2013, Dr. Mal Couch lost his battle with cancer and passed into the presence of his Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.
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The Rapture - Part 10
by Andy Woods


It is common to hear anti-rapturists attack the doctrine of the rapture on the grounds that such an idea is not found in church history until very late. They argue that the doctrine did not exist in church history until the writings of John Nelson Darby in the 1800's. However the rapture is a traditional doctrine now being recovered.
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The Extent of the Atonement, Part 2
by Paul Henebury


In part 1 of this article the author defined the terms, considered a few Bible passages, and explained Limited Atonement. This article examines some passages that defend Unlimited Atonement. (See part 1.)

This article was originally published in the Conservative Theological Journal, Volume 9 Number 27 (Fort Worth, TX: Tyndale Theological Seminary, 2005) 241:257.


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Christ’s Atonement: Its Purpose and Extent, Part 1
by Paul Henebury


Intimately entwined within the question as to the extent of Christ’s death on the Cross is the discussion concerning what this event actually achieved. In other words, what was its purpose? The author proves, by means of logic and a proper exegesis of the relevant passages, that Jesus died for every individual, yet that does not inevitably lead to the conclusion that all will be saved. (Continued in part 2 of the article.)

This article was originally published in the Conservative Theological Journal, Volume 9 Number 26 (Fort Worth, TX: Tyndale Theological Seminary, 2005), 87:108.


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The Coming Kingdom - Part 12
by Andy Woods


Neither the kingdom mysteries nor the church represent the fulfillment of God's Old Testament kingdom promises. Rather, they epitomize fresh works of God independent of the Old Testament kingdom expectation. Thus, the kingdom will remain in a state of abeyance as long as God's present work in the world continues through His interim program.
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Top Twenty Reasons for Not Reinterpreting the Old Testament by the New
by Paul Henebury


It seems to be almost an axiom within contemporary evangelical Bible interpretation that the New Testament must be allowed to reinterpret the Old Testament. This belief in the interpretative priory of the NT over the OT is accepted as “received truth” by a great many evangelical scholars and students today. But there are corollaries which are often left unexplored or ill-considered.
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The Rapture - Part 9
by Andy Woods


While there are a plethora of signs that first must transpire before Christ can return at the end of the seven-year tribulation period, there are no signs that must occur before the rapture of the church can take place.
(133)
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Reflections on the Recent Passing of Robert Bork
by Andy Woods


Robert Bork was a man of uncommon excellence who was persecuted due to his common sense approach to Constitutional Law. Had his ideas had a greater influence over the minds of our judges, they likely could have spared us from the fiscal cliff and crisis that we are on the precipice of hurling over. Now Bork speaks to us from the grave through his many writings.
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What is Wrong with Man?
by Andy Woods


Because of the recent shooting in Connecticut, we are engulfed in a national conversation concerning what caused the shooter to do what he did. The shooter's destructive behavior has been blamed on everything from a lack of access to affordable health care, to listening to too much political commentary, to the easy accessibility of firearms. Sadly, many use a tragic event of this nature to advocate a political agenda that calls for greater control of government over our lives. Yet, in the midst of all of this pontification, few have adequately articulated the root cause of the problem.
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The Rapture - Part 8
by Andy Woods


Scripture refers to the rapture as a mystery (1Cor. 15:51). When people read the word "mystery" in the New Testament they have a tendency of importing an English understanding of the word back into the text. Such an anachronistic reading is unfortunate since the word "mystery" means something quite different in English than it does in Greek, which was the original language of the New Testament.
(130)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 11
by Andy Woods


An additional reason that Israel is not the church is due to the fact that the church and Israel represent separate programs of God. They are two trains running on separate railroad tracks.
(129)
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"There Arose Another Generation After Them Who Did Not Know the Lord": A Post Election Analysis
by Andy Woods


What is different about the moral and spiritual climate in America today in 2012 in comparison to the mindset that prevailed and existed back in 1979? As I have been contemplating this question, the biblical verse that continues to come to my mind is Judges 2:10, which says, "All that generation also were gathered to their fathers; and there arose another generation after them who did not know the LORD, nor yet the work which He had done for Israel."
(128)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 10
by Andy Woods


The church consists of all people, including both the Jewish remnant as well as Gentiles, who have trusted in the very Messiah Israel rejected. Unlike Israel, which was a national identity, the church is a spiritual organism consisting of all nations and ethnicities (Gal. 3:28; Rom. 10:19; Eph. 2:14). The church age began on the Day of Pentecost in Acts 2 and will conclude with the future rapture of the church from the earth. Rather than replacing Israel, the church represents an entirely new divine work that interrupts God's past dealings and future dealings with national Israel.
(127)
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 9
by Andy Woods


God's present work in and through the church is not to be confused with God's program concerning the coming kingdom.
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Daniel and the Times of the Gentiles
by Tony Garland


Much of what Jesus says in the Gospels is anchored by revelation previously given in the Old Testament. Where Jesus is teaching concepts which find their origin in the Old Testament, He expects His listeners to be familiar with the basis of His teachings. An understanding of the historic setting of Daniel helps us interpret Jesus' puzzling reference to "the Times of the Gentiles" (Luke 21:22-24).
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How An Evangelical Christian Can Support a Mormon for President
by Andy Woods


A president is not in power to promote theology. That is what pastors and theologians are for. Rather, a president is elected to politically and economically govern our country. Therefore, I pick a president not based on his personal theology but rather upon his philosophy of government.
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A Theological Case for Inerrancy
by Paul Henebury


The battle over the inerrancy of Scripture hasn't and isn't going away. We must decide how we will approach the Bible - what our working assumptions will be. If "all Scripture is Godbreathed" then all Scripture has the insignia of God upon it. This would be the bare-bones theological deduction from the relationship between the two. For the human element to be lifted above the Divine element so as to enjoy equal ultimacy over the resultant production of Scripture requires an alteration to Scripture's own self-witness.
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 8
by Andy Woods


A mistake typically made even by dispensational, premillennial interpreters is to contend that the Matthew 13 parables reveal a present spiritual form of the kingdom known as the "mystery form of the kingdom." While not contending that the Davidic kingdom is present, they instead believe that the kingdom is spiritually present in mystery form only. However, even this is to read too much into the text of Matthew 13 than is actually there.
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The Rapture - Part 7
by Andy Woods


The rapture is an instantaneous event.
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 7
by Andy Woods


The kingdom mysteries (Matt. 13:1-52) represent the course of events to be experienced by the kingdom's heirs or the "sons of the kingdom" (Matt. 13:38) between Israel's rejection and future acceptance of the kingdom offer. These mysteries cover the time period between Israel's formal rejection of the kingdom and the Second Advent (Matt. 13:40-42, 49-50). The kingdom mysteries represent new truths concerning the kingdom that were undisclosed in the Old Testament.
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 6
by Andy Woods


The entire Gentile world could become Christian. Yet, if tiny Israel remains in unbelief, the kingdom cannot materialize. Conversely, the entire Gentile world could reject Christ. Yet, if Israel fulfills the condition stated in Matthew 23:37-39 by accepting Jesus as the Messiah, the kingdom will materialize upon the earth.
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The Rapture - Part 6
by Andy Woods


The rapture will exempt an entire generation of Christians from death and will remove an entire generation before the expiration of their natural life spans and the experience of death.
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 5
by Andy Woods


When Israel of its own free will rejected the kingdom offer, that decision was used by an all-powerful God to usher in the next major phase of His pre-ordained plan. This plan entailed Christ paying the sin debt of the world by dying on the cross and God's present work in the interim age.
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The Rapture - Part 5
by Andy Woods


The rapture will be a resurrection. A resurrection is the opposite of death. Death involves separation. When people die the immaterial part of them that is designed to live forever called the soul separates from the body or material aspect. By contrast, a resurrection involves a reunion. When a person is resurrected their soul-spirit or immaterial aspect is placed in a glorified or resurrected body.
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Babylon of the End Times
by Andy Woods


This article surveys various lines of biblical evidence that call for a futuristic, literal Babylon. This paper was presented at the 2009 Chafer Theological Seminary Conference.
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 4
by Andy Woods


Throughout the dark years of national disobedience, Gentile dominion, and kingdom postponement, the Old Testament prophets held out hope for the nation and the world by faithfully speaking of a coming generation of Jews who would return to Yahweh thereby ushering in kingdom blessings.
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 3
by Andy Woods


The Mosaic Covenant, that God gave exclusively to national Israel (Ps. 147:19-20) at Mount Sinai, speaks to the reality of a future messianic kingdom.
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 2
by Andy Woods


God's word speaks to the reality of a future messianic kingdom in those sections which reveal God's covenants with His special nation Israel.
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The Coming Kingdom - Part 1
by Andy Woods


The contemporary evangelical world is engulfed in the idea that the church is presently experiencing the messianic kingdom. The idea of the "kingdom" can be bewildering, especially considering how this term is loosely bandied about by today's evangelicals.
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Positive Application of the Rules of Affinity
by Paul Henebury


The "Rules of Affinity" are applied to Scripture to establish unambiguous evangelical doctrines.
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Clarifications and Limitations of the Rules of Affinity
by Paul Henebury


The "Rules of Affinity" help us to locate and identify doctrinal speculation in its various degrees and manifestations. But there are some things they cannot do.
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The Rapture - Part 4
by Andy Woods


Not only is the rapture an important doctrine, an event that is distinct from the Second Advent of Christ, and an event that will involve the catching up of every believer to meet the Lord in the air, but the rapture will also be a reunion between living and deceased believers.
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Negative Application of the Rules of Affinity
by Paul Henebury


The "Rules of Affinity" test the "distance" between a given theological proposal and the actual textual references alleged to lend them authority. The two categories in the Grid which reveal little or no affinity between the words of Scripture and the doctrines supposed to be borne out of it are C4's or C5's. These categories are heavy on inference and light on affinity. They are chock full of human reason and empty of clear, definable connection to the verses which are being unfairly summoned to support them.
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Rules of Affinity
by Paul Henebury


"The Rules of Affinity" are a relatively straightforward device whereby a theological proposition (e.g. that a sinner is justified by faith) is compared with the texts of scripture by which it is supported to disclose how closely those passages agree with the proposition in question.
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The Meaning of "The Perfect" in 1 Corinthians 13:8-13
by Andy Woods


Much controversy persists within evangelicalism regarding the use and existence of the gifts of tongues, knowledge, and prophecy among believers. Charismatics maintain that all of the gifts of the Holy Spirit remain in operation today. These gifts, in their view, include not only those that are edificatory in nature, such as teaching and preaching, but also revelatory or confirmatory ones, such as tongues, interpretation of tongues, healing, word of wisdom, word of knowledge, prophecy, and miracles. On the other hand, cessationists contend that the sign and revelatory gifts have not functioned in the church since the close of the apostolic age, and thus only the edificatory gifts remain. A key battleground text in this ongoing debate is 1 Corinthians 13:8-10, which teaches that certain gifts will cease when that which is perfect has come. The obvious question is, what does Paul mean?

This article was originally published in the Chafer Theological Journal, vol. 10, #2 (Fall 2004).
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The Rapture - Part 3
by Andy Woods


When someone challenges the validity of the rapture on the grounds that the word itself is not found in the New Testament, an appropriate response would be to refer to the Latin copy of the Bible where the word rapture can be readily and easily observed.
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The Big Lie: Separation of Church and State
by Andy Woods


Church and state should be separate in the sense that both institutions are different and fulfill unique roles. The church should not take on governmental tasks such as taxing citizens and prosecuting criminals any more than the state should take on the responsibility of fulfilling the Great Commission. However, this is not the way the modern day separation between church and state doctrine is applied. Today, this doctrine means that the Christian worldview can have no influence over how the state should function. This doctrine has been misapplied so as to eliminate virtually all forms of Christian expression in public and governmental life.
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Hermeneutical Confusion and Hermeneutical Consistency
by Paul Henebury


Without a doubt, the issue of hermeneutics is one of the hottest issues in theology today. The word comes from the Greek hermeneia which basically means "interpretation." How do we interpret the Bible, and, in particular, those relatively few, yet significant parts of it which cause puzzlement or debate?
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The Rapture - Part 2
by Andy Woods


Contrasting passages concerning Christ's Second Coming indicate the rapture will be an event which is distinct from the Second Advent. In other words, the Second Coming of Christ is divided into two phases.
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The Paradigm of Kadesh Barnea as a Solution to the Problem of Hebrews 6:4-6
by Andy Woods


The warning found in Hebrews 6:4-6 has provoked disagreement among Bible interpreters and exegetes. Gromacki observes that this passage is "probably the most controversial passage within Hebrews." Most Calvinist and Reformed interpreters insist that the warning passage is too strong to apply to believers, so unbelievers must be in view in these verses. Arminians contend that the passage is speaking of genuine believers who are at risk of losing their salvation. Others argue that these verses are speaking of genuine believers and the severe warning is a mere hypothetical scenario. Still others contend that these verses speak of believers who are in jeopardy of losing blessings. Who is right? How are interpreters to make sense of this difficult passage?

This article was originally published in the Chafer Theological Journal Journal 12 (Spring 2006).
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The Rapture - Part 1
by Andy Woods


I remain astonished at the number of emails I receive from individuals who do not believe that the rapture is a biblical doctrine. Such people seem to have the idea that the whole rapture concept is manufactured by popular, sensationalistic prophecy teachers in their attempt to sell books and make money. Thus, they contend that this rapture doctrine has no biblical justification whatsoever. In order to demonstrate the rapture is truly a biblical doctrine, I am commencing a series of articles on the "Doctrine of the Rapture of the Church."
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Israel-Church Differences
by Andy Woods


One of the rules of basic Bible interpretation is to recognize that the church and Israel represent separate programs of God. They are two trains running on separate railroad tracks. An understanding of the differences between each program should caution us against taking prophecies and promises that are specifically aimed at Israel and misapplying them to the present dispensation of the Church Age.
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Jesus and the Rapture
by Andy Woods


Did Jesus ever refer to the rapture? When this question is asked, two passages usually come to mind: Matt 24:40-41 and John 14:1-4. The purpose of this paper is to show that although Christ did not refer to the rapture in Matt 24:40-41, He did refer to the rapture in John 14:1-4.
This paper was presented at the 2011 meeting of the Pre-Trib Study Group.
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Salvation Lessons from the Thief on the Cross
by Andy Woods


Luke 23:39-43 records the famous death-bed conversion of the "thief on the cross." There were seven truths that the repentant thief understood. Studying these truths is important since they are the same realities that all must embrace in order to gain peace with their Creator.
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Why Did God Become a Man?
by Andy Woods


Why was it necessary for Christ to become man? At least seven reasons come to mind.
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Do We Need the New Testament to Understand the Old?
by Paul Henebury


It is a common feature of discussions with some fellow believers to hear them say that the New Testament interprets the Old. This maxim, which is almost a clich in some circles, is seldom explained.
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A Disingenuous God? - Part 3
by Paul Henebury


I believe that God means what He says! I trust such a God. I believe what He graciously promises me in the Gospel. But I don't see how I can trust a god who misled thousands of pious Jews (and Christians) into believing the plain-sense of his words and then 'fulfilled' them entirely differently. If he can do that to others, he can do it to me.
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A Disingenuous God? - Part 2
by Paul Henebury


Suppose someone made you a promise concerning something of great importance to you. This person then went a step further and, to show his intent to make good his promise, entered in to some solemn ritual involving a self-maledictory oath. You could surely trust the promise right?
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A Disingenuous God? - Part 1
by Paul Henebury


The language of 'expansion' found often on the lips of supercessionists -- those who will insist that the OT prophets mean something OTHER than what their actual words convey -- is, I believe, calculated to be ambiguous.
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Disingenuousness and "Expansion" Language
by Paul Henebury


I am considering this matter if plain speaking in theological discourse, and have noted my dislike of those who say something in a way so that it is easy to mistake their intentions. We are used to being given the run-around by the Cults -- for they deal in duplicity -- but evangelical brothers and sisters can do this sort of thing too.
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Disingenuousness and the Problem of the Obvious
by Paul Henebury


It is an odd phenomenon that in our world someone can claim all sorts of things which sound quite plausible, but which, as a matter of fact, only preserve their appearance of plausibility by passing over very blunt facts which would soon have them plugging the leeks in their outlook, were it not for the fact that they can imagine these rude truths away.
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Ezekiel's Temple: Premillennial Achilles' Heel?
by Paul Henebury


What the full purposes of the Temple will be cannot be stated with exactitude, but there is no contradiction in Christ offering a once-for-all sacrifice for sins and the reinstitution of Millennial Sacrifices.
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The Temples of the Bible: Part 3
by Andy Woods


This article will briefly examine this coming fourth temple as well as briefly discuss the metaphorical temples God indwells in the present church age.
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The Temples of the Bible: Part 2
by Andy Woods


Although the Scripture clearly predicts the reality of the coming third temple in the Tribulation period, much debate persists concerning how this temple will actually be rebuilt. This article will briefly explore some of these issues.
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A Case for the Futurist Interpretation of the Book of Revelation
by Andy Woods


While previous generations of dispensational interpreters may have enjoyed the luxury of the widespread assumption that the Book of Revelation primarily concerns future events, such a "golden age" has now come to an end. Today, many scholarly and popular commentators alike are aggressively challenging the futurist interpretation of Revelation.
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The Temples of the Bible: Part 1
by Andy Woods


One way to get a perspective on what God has done, is doing, and will do is to become familiar with the various temples of Scripture.
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Dispensationalism and TULIP -- A Verdict
by Paul Henebury


In these posts I have tried to demonstrate how the kind of hermeneutical processes involved in bringing an individual to espouse dispensational premillennial eschatology will cause him (or her) NOT to espouse 5-Point Calvinism, or its companion, regeneration prior to faith. I have done this by using a grid or filter for checking doctrines based on comparing theological propositions with the Bible. I believe that I have shown that TULIP cannot pass muster in this regard.
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Presuppositional Apologetics: An Introduction
by Paul Henebury


Christians must not abandon their Bibles at the crucial moment when their Faith is assailed. Instead, they are to assert confidently and intelligently the Biblical perspective about God, about man, and about the fallen world in which we live. What is called "Presuppositional" Apologetics attempts to do just that.
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What Happened to Ananias and Sapphira?
by Andy Woods


It is amazing to discover the things we can learn about God's character and how He works in our lives and churches from this short and sometimes overlooked story of Ananias and Sapphira.
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A Christ-centered Education, Part 7
by Vicki Lewis


It thrills my heart to imagine what this generation of homeschooled children may discover, invent, create, or design because they have been taught from childhood to believe in the truth of God's Word in every detail!
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A Christ-centered Education, Part 6
by Vicki Lewis


A Christ-centered education involves asking good questions and then searching prayerfully for the answers.
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A Christ-centered Education, Part 5
by Vicki Lewis


Here is another example from the area of history--sometimes referred to as His story! Actually, this was the first time I ever realized that God was involved in history at all.
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A Christ-centered Education, Part 4
by Vicki Lewis


As we home school our children we are to teach and show our children that God's reputation can be upheld and honored in each subject area; that God carries weight in academics; that He is both important and significant in history, in mathematics, in science; and that because He is sovereign, He influences all of knowledge. Do you see God in each area of your curriculum? You will need to see Him for yourself so that you can point Him out to your children!
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A Christ-centered Education, Part 3
by Vicki Lewis


Conventional schools do not consider anything related to faith to be part of their job. The training of character is occasionally taught, but it is never built on the foundation of faith. It is great to teach our children to be truthful or patient or not to bully others. But without faith undergirding those qualities, the character is being built upon a foundation of sand.
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A Christ-centered Education, Part 2
by Vicki Lewis


When we turned to the Bible to see what principles God gave about educating our children, we found that God gave instructions to parents (1) to teach their children about Him, (2) to teach what is godly and right, and (3) not to teach what is ungodly or evil.
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The Prophetic Significance of the Davidic Line and Covenant
by Andy Woods


Many confuse the present ministry of Christ with His predicted Davidic reign found in 2 Sam 7:13-16. Yet these two ministries are not to be equated.
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Dispensationalism and TULIP - The Perseverance of the Saints
by Paul Henebury


What I am concerned with in these posts is the question of whether or not the kind of interpretative approach which persuades a person to be a dispensationalist works just as well in persuading them of the Five Points of Calvinism.
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A Christ-centered Education, Part 1
by Vicki Lewis


A Christ-centered education is where God is accorded His rightful place and He is given all the significance He is due.
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Only One Director and One Audience
by Vicki Lewis


Handling a certain amount of load in our lives is a good thing. The problem arises, however, when there is an overload situation.
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Romans 1:16-17: An Exposition
by Andy Woods


Romans 1:16-17 represents critical seed truths about the Gospel message, which Paul will water and develop further throughout his masterful treatment on Soteriology (doctrine of Salvation) called the Book of Romans.
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I Don't Think I Can Do This!
by Vicki Lewis


Because God specifically has asked us to raise our children for Him, He promises to make available to us everything we need in order to do this job.
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Dispensationalism and TULIP - Irresistable grace
by Paul Henebury


What I am concerned with in these posts is the question of whether or not the kind of interpretative approach which persuades a person to be a dispensationalist works just as well in persuading them of the Five Points of Calvinism.
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Dispensationalism and TULIP - Limited Atonement
by Paul Henebury


What I am concerned with in these posts is the question of whether or not the kind of interpretative approach which persuades a person to be a dispensationalist works just as well in persuading them of the Five Points of Calvinism.
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The Work of the Holy Spirit Among the Unsaved
by Andy Woods


The Scripture speaks of the work of the Holy Spirit among the unsaved. It is important that we understand what the Spirit seeks to accomplish in the lives of unbelievers so that we can cooperate with His agenda and thus be used by Him in the lives of non-Christians.
(66)
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Dispensationalism and TULIP - Unconditional Election
by Paul Henebury


What I am concerned with in these posts is the question of whether or not the kind of interpretative approach which persuades a person to be a dispensationalist works just as well in persuading them of the Five Points of Calvinism.
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Dispensationalism and TULIP - Total Depravity
by Paul Henebury


What I am concerned with in these posts is the question of whether or not the kind of interpretative approach which persuades a person to be a dispensationalist works just as well in persuading them of the Five Points of Calvinism.
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Begin Homeschooling with Confidence
by Vicki Lewis


These practical steps will help those considering homeschooling to embark on the process with clarity, purpose, and confidence.
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Faith, Character, Knowledge
by Vicki Lewis


If our children were to get nothing else from us as parents, we would be eternally grateful if each of our precious children came, in God's perfect timing, to a strong faith in Jesus Christ as his or her own personal Savior and Lord.
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Faith Training: Discipling Our Children at Home
by Vicki Lewis


Home educating means there are numerous academic subjects to study with our children. But there is no more valuable subject for the Christian home educator than teaching that causes our children to grow in faith, teaching that will bring them up in the nurture (training) and admonition (instruction) of the Lord.
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The Three Tenses of Salvation
by Andy Woods


The next time we hear the word "salvation," let us embrace the full dimensions and ramifications of this term, and consequently glorify God for all that He has done for us, is doing for us, and will do for us.
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What is Wrong with Lordship Salvation?
by Andy Woods


Although Lordship Salvation represents the right diagnosis of a problem, it holds out as the solution the wrong cure.
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Egyptian Unrest and the Prophetic Scenario
by Andy Woods


While the unbeliever may look at world events as if they are out of control, the Scripture reminds us that our sovereign God is in control of history, which He is fitting into a distinct pattern that He revealed long ago. All of this is also a reminder that as the stage is being set for the coming Tribulation period, Christ's coming for the church through the rapture is even nearer.
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What is Wrong with Man?
by Andy Woods


Given the current drift of our culture away from biblical truth, what surprises me is not the occurrence of violent episodes, like the one that recently occurred in Tucson; but what surprises me is that these tragic events do not happen with greater frequency. The only lasting solution to man's wicked heart is an internal transformation that only God can provide, and this is the root cause of man's problem.
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A Futurist Response to the Preterist Interpretation of Babylon in Revelation 17:18
by Andy Woods


Because the exegetical, contextual, and geographic details do not support the interpretation that Babylon of Rev 17:18 is first-century Jerusalem, interpreters are obligated to consider other options in their attempt to identify the harlot.
This paper was presented at the 2010 meeting of the Pre-Trib Study Group.
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Some Pastoral Thoughts on the Christian and Voting
by Andy Woods


Does the Bible have anything to say about the Christian's role and responsibility in voting? The answer is both no and yes.
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The Divine Preservation of the Messianic Line: The True Meaning of the Holidays
by Andy Woods


The true meaning of the holiday is the celebration of the superintendence of a sovereign God that allowed His prophesied redeemer, God the Son, to be born into the world.
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Why Believe in Christ's Virgin Birth?
by Andy Woods


Why was it so important for Christ to have been virgin born? At least six reasons come to mind.
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How Complicated is Salvation?
by Andy Woods


Let us maintain the simplicity of the Gospel as we share it with others lest it be reduced to another mere human works oriented message, rather than a divine one.
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Faith and Reason in Christian Perspective
by Paul Henebury


The Divine Logos who created and structured the world and created us to interpret the world through Him via the Scriptures, has given faith as the mechanism by which the two are brought together. Thus, faith is not opposed to reason; but in fact it is served by reason.
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Theology and Science
by Paul Henebury


When it comes down to it, every outlook on the world has to assume certain things; it has to have some idea of what is ultimately real. Whatever that ultimate reality is thought to be (e.g. Chance, Illusion, God) plays the role of the divine. This, then in large measure organizes the world around itself, either allowing in or shutting out data according to how that data is found to fit the outlook.
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The Worldview of the Wisdom Books
by Paul Henebury


Paul Henebury discusses the world view evident within the wisdom books of the Bible and shows that a proper perspective on the world must include several facets not associated with the thinking of the person without God, beginning with the fear of God Himself.
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The Logical Order of the Divine Decrees
by Paul Henebury


Paul Henebury considers the relative order in which God initially set forth aspects of His plan leading to salvation.
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The Last Days Apostasy of the Church - Part 6
by Andy Woods


This series of articles contends that it is impossible to understand God's plan for the end times without understanding what Scripture reveals about the last days apostasy of the church. See Part 5.

This article was originally published in Volume VIII Number 76 (May 2010) of the Pre-Trib Perspectives.
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The Last Days Apostasy of the Church - Part 5
by Andy Woods


This series of articles contends that it is impossible to understand God's plan for the end times without understanding what Scripture reveals about the last days apostasy of the church. See Part 4 and Part 6.

This article was originally published in Volume VIII Number 75 (April 2010) of the Pre-Trib Perspectives.
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The Last Days Apostasy of the Church - Part 4
by Andy Woods


This series of articles contends that it is impossible to understand God's plan for the end times without understanding what Scripture reveals about the last days apostasy of the church. See Part 3 and Part 5.

This article was originally published in Volume VIII Number 74 (March 2010) of the Pre-Trib Perspectives.
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Systematic Theology
by Paul Henebury


Paul Henebury recommends a list of favorite texts on systematic theology.
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The Last Days Apostasy of the Church - Part 3
by Andy Woods


This series of articles contends that it is impossible to understand God's plan for the end times without understanding what Scripture reveals about the last days apostasy of the church. See Part 2 and Part 4.

This article was originally published in Volume VIII Number 73 (February 2010) of the Pre-Trib Perspectives.
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Biblical Theology and (Dispensational) Theological Method
by Paul Henebury


For dispensational theology to get underway properly there needs to be a methodology which comports with the progress of revelation as recorded in the outworking of the covenants of God in history. Exegesis of the underlying text, unbiased by any external system of thought is critical in this process.
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Progressive Dispensationalism and Normative Dispensationalism: Separate Hermeneutical Assumptions
by Paul Henebury


Paul examines the interpretive methods of progressive dispensationalism in comparison with normative dispensationalism.
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Creation, Fall, Redemption: The Theological-Historical Motif of the Bible
by Paul Henebury


Paul Henebury provides an outline of reality based on the Biblical picture of God.
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The Last Days Apostasy of the Church - Part 2
by Andy Woods


This series of articles contends that it is impossible to understand God's plan for the end times without understanding what Scripture reveals about the last days apostasy of the church. See Part 1 and Part 3.

This article was originally published in Volume VIII Number 72 (January/February 2010) of the Pre-Trib Perspectives.
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The Bible as Revelation
by Paul Henebury


Paul Henebury discusses the appropriate use of the Bible to arrive at a reliable understanding of God.
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The Last Days Apostasy of the Church - Part 1
by Andy Woods


This series of articles contends that it is impossible to understand God's plan for the end times without understanding what Scripture reveals about the last days apostasy of the church. See Part 2.

This article was originally published in Volume VIII Number 71 (November/December 2009) of the Pre-Trib Perspectives.
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The Doctrine of the Trinity - Part 2
by Steve Lewis


The first part of this study examined the doctrine of the Trinity from a theological perspective. It discussed many of the concepts which form the basis for a proper biblical definition of the Trinity, as well as some principles of interpretation for using the exegesis of a specific passage to construct a doctrine of systematic theology. With the preceding concepts in mind, the purpose of this study will be to analyze a key passage of Scripture to discover its contribution to the doctrine of the Trinity. This passage states: "When the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, that is the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father, He will testify about Me, and you will testify also, because you have been with Me from the beginning." (John 15:26-27, NASB) See Part 1.

This article was published in The Journal of Dispensational Theology, Vol. 12 No. 36, August 2008. This article appears by permission of The Journal of Dispensational Theology which is published by the Society of Dispensational Theology.
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The Doctrine of the Trinity - Part 1
by Steve Lewis


The goal of this study is to present an introduction to the doctrine of the Trinity as well as an exegesis of a specific passage that provides key facts which must be considered in any systematic treatment of the Trinity. The first part of this discussion will include the definition and importance of the doctrine, the early historical development of the doctrine, and important theological concepts relating to this doctrine. Part two will undertake an exegetical analysis of a key Scripture passage on the Trinity (John 15:26-27) in order to understand its contribution to this important doctrine.

This article was published in The Journal of Dispensational Theology, Vol. 12 No. 35, March 2008. This article appears by permission of The Journal of Dispensational Theology which is published by the Society of Dispensational Theology.
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The Date and Authorship of the Book of Daniel
by Charles Ray


It is no accident that the three most attacked books of the Bible are also the most significant (Genesis, Daniel, and Revelation). It is commonly known that if the foundation is faulty, the building will soon fall. This article will seek to refute the view that the Book of Daniel was written in the second century BC (as many liberals claim) and thus could not have been written by Daniel (ca. 622 -- ca. 536).

This article was published in The Journal of Dispensational Theology, Vol. 11 No. 34, December 2007. This article appears by permission of The Journal of Dispensational Theology which is published by the Society of Dispensational Theology.
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Does Pretribulationism Lead to Idleness?
by Steve Lewis


The common view of 2 Thessalonians 3:6-12 is that the unruly believers had forsaken their normal livelihood in order to wait for the Rapture of the Church. This view, however, opens the doctrine of Premillennialism to undue criticism.

This article was published in The Journal of Dispensational Theology, Vol. 10 No. 30, September 2006. This article appears by permission of The Journal of Dispensational Theology which is published by the Society of Dispensational Theology.
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A Study of Daniel 9:24-27, Part 1
by Charles Ray


The first in a four-part article examining the famous prophecy of Daniel's 70 Weeks. Have all 70 weeks been fulfilled in the past? Is there a gap between the 69th. and 70th week? What starts the 70 weeks and when do they end? Dr. Ray guides us on a detailed exegesis of this important passage. See Part 2.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 5 No. 15, August 2001. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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A Study of Daniel 9:24-27, Part 2
by Charles Ray


The second in a four-part article examining the famous prophecy of Daniel's 70 Weeks. Have all 70 weeks been fulfilled in the past? Is there a gap between the 69th. and 70th week? What starts the 70 weeks and when do they end? Dr. Ray guides us on a detailed exegesis of this important passage. See Part 3.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 5 No. 16, December 2001. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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A Study of Daniel 9:24-27, Part 3
by Charles Ray


The third in a four-part article examining the famous prophecy of Daniel's 70 Weeks. Have all 70 weeks been fulfilled in the past? Is there a gap between the 69th. and 70th week? What starts the 70 weeks and when do they end? Dr. Ray guides us on a detailed exegesis of this important passage. See Part 4.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 6 No. 17, March 2002. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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A Study of Daniel 9:24-27, Part 4
by Charles Ray


The final installment in a four-part article examining the famous prophecy of Daniel's 70 Weeks. Have all 70 weeks been fulfilled in the past? Is there a gap between the 69th. and 70th week? What starts the 70 weeks and when do they end? Dr. Ray guides us on a detailed exegesis of this important passage.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 6 No. 18, August 2002. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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The Nature of Saving Faith
by Steve Lewis


There is much confusion in the Church today over the nature of saving faith. Many contradictory theories have been proposed over the years, ranging from the Arminian view of absolute human free will to the extreme Calvinistic view of the complete inability of man which requires that faith itself be a gift of God. Many theories regarding the nature of saving faith are based on logical inferences that have been reached in an attempt to create coherent systems of theology, rather than being based on clear statements in Scripture. The present study will examine the evidence regarding the capabilities of fallen man, the pre-faith work of the Godhead within the unsaved, and the ultimate nature of saving faith as it relates to the process of salvation.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 9 No. 27, August 2005. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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Canaanite Genocide
by Andy Woods


Biblical genocide has proven to be a stumbling block preventing people from trusting Christ as savior. Many rationalize that the God of the Bible is no more humane than the God of Islam on account of the fact that divinely sanctioned genocide is found in the major holy books of both religions. Thus, an explanation of biblical genocide has become a key Christian apologetic issue of our day. To this end, this paper will attempt to offer a balanced perspective on the subject of divinely sanctioned genocide of the Canaanites.
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DISPENSATIONAL HERMENEUTICS: The Matter of Genre
by Andy Woods


Despite the fact that genre can be a helpful device in interpreting Scripture, today's evangelicals have pushed the concept too far. Today, genre is often used as an excuse for suspending the ordinary rules of hermeneutics.
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DISPENSATIONAL HERMENEUTICS: The Grammatico-Historical Method
by Andy Woods


What makes someone a dispensationalist? While many view Dispensationalism as a mere theological system, this assessment is inaccurate. In actuality, Dispensationalism has more to do with commitment to a particular hermeneutic then it does to adherence to a theological model. The Dispensational theological system arises out of a hermeneutic rather than from a theology imposed upon Scripture. The purpose of this paper is to describe this hermeneutic and explain how Dispensationalism is its natural by-product.
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The Doctrine of the Remnant and the Salvation of Israel in Romans 9-11
by Steve Lewis


This article presents a contextual and grammatical analysis of Romans 9-11 in order to provide a consistent interpretation of the different aspects of God's plan for the salvation of Israel. Special attention is focused on Romans 11:25-26 regarding the eventual salvation of Israel on a national scale.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 9 No. 26, March 2005. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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The Significance of Systematic Theology
by Andy Woods


This final article in a three-part series on the subject of systematic theology (published in the Conservative Theological Journal) gets to the most fundamental issue by answering the question, "Do we really need theology at all?" Although previous generations of believers would have never entertained such a question, this query is crying out for an answer today on account of the fact that more and more Christian leaders are beginning to view theology as something that is somewhat irrelevant to the health and life of the church.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 8 No. 25, December 2004. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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Enthroning the Interpreter: Dangerous Trends in Law and Theology - Part 1
by Andy Woods


The disciplines of law and theology have much in common. Perhaps the most significant similarity between the two entails the relentless quest for authorial intent through the vehicle of a literal method of interpretation. In other words, a literal hermeneutical procedure is the key toward understanding the author's intended meaning when interpreting either legal documents or Scripture. This series of articles will demonstrate that the use of a literal method of interpretation in order to pursue the author's meaning is a time-honored practice in both fields. In addition, these articles will also draw attention to disturbing interpretive trends well under way in both disciplines that have introduced a gradual shift in authority from the text to the interpreter. This article (part one) will focus on how literal interpretation is a foundational interpretive method within the American legal system. See Part 2.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 8 No. 23, March 2004. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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Enthroning the Interpreter: Dangerous Trends in Law and Theology - Part 2
by Andy Woods


Part 1 in this series of articles demonstrated that the utilization of a literal hermeneutic in order to ascertain authorial intent is a key component of American jurisprudence. This article (part 2) will establish that the employment of this same method of interpretation is also the cornerstone of proper biblical interpretation. It stands to reason that if jurists employ literalism in order to discover the author's meaning in contracts, testamentary documents, statutes, or constitutions, interpreters of Scripture should do no less when seeking to discover what God Himself has declared. Thus, one notices distinct similarities when comparing traditional maxims of legal interpretation with basic maxims of biblical interpretation. Specifically, this article will show that both biblical and legal interpretation use the identical interpretive approach and underlying philosophy. See Part 2.

This series of four articles was published in three installments in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 8 No. 23, 24, and 25 (March, August, and December) of 2004. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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Enthroning the Interpreter: Dangerous Trends in Law and Theology - Part 3
by Andy Woods


Part 2 in this series of articles demonstrated that use of a literal hermeneutic in order to ascertain authorial intent is foundational to proper legal and biblical interpretation. The next two articles will expose a drift away from these bedrock principles in both fields. Over the course of the previous century and a half, American jurisprudence has experienced a progressive movement away from seeking authorial intent through what the author has plainly stated. Although this trend is not necessarily discernible in all facets of legal interpretation, it is particularly noticeable in the field of constitutional interpretation. While Justice Story's previously mentioned classical approach to constitutional interpretation called for seeking the meaning of the Constitution based upon the plain language of its drafters, modern constitutional interpretation places the ability to determine the Constitution's meaning almost exclusively within the subjective discretion of the interpreter. Thus, the end result is that the field of constitutional interpretation has undergone a radical shift in authority from the objective constitutional text to the subjectivity of the interpreter's mind. See Part 4.

This series of four articles was published in three installments in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 8 No. 23, 24, and 25 (March, August, and December) of 2004. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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Enthroning the Interpreter: Dangerous Trends in Law and Theology - Part 4
by Andy Woods


The first two articles in this four-part series showed that proper legal and biblical interpretation involves pursuing authorial intent through the mechanism of a literal hermeneutic. The underlying philosophy behind such an approach is to dethrone the interpreter's personal ideological or theological preferences and instead to enthrone what is objectively revealed in the text. In other words, the goal of applying a literal hermeneutic is to transfer the authority in the interpretive process away from the dynamic and subjective imagination of the interpreter and instead toward the objective standard of the unchanging text. Part three of this series traced an erosion of this time-honored principle in the area of constitutional interpretation. Because modern judicial philosophy determines the Constitution's meaning based upon what the judge says it means rather than based upon what the document actually says, the true authority in the interpretive process has transferred from the text to the interpreter.

This series of four articles was published in three installments in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 8 No. 23, 24, and 25 (March, August, and December) of 2004. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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The Contribution Ancient Near East Background Material Makes To Understanding And Interpreting Isaiah 14:12-15
by Andy Woods


Many modern interpreters reject the idea that Isaiah 14:12-15 represents the fall of Satan on the grounds that Isaiah is drawing from a pagan myth. However, a careful comparison of Isaiah 14:12-15 with alleged mythological sources indicates that any similarities between the two are outweighed by vast differences.
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Revelation 1:7 - Past or Future?
by Tony Garland


John wrote that "every eye will see Him" and that "all the tribes of the earth will mourn" when He appears. Did Jesus "appear" to the Jewish tribes at the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 as preterism maintains? Or are there reasons for understanding this passage to teach a future event of world-wide impact?

This article was subsequently published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 9 No. 27, August 2005 which is a publication of the Conservative Theological Society.
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Systematic Theology and Premillennialism
by Charles Ray


Premillennialism touches on almost every major branch of systematic theology to one degree or another. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the significance of this pervasive influence, and, by contrast, the perverting influence of amillennialism and postmillennialism.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 8 No. 24, August 2004. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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The Meaning of "The Husband of One Wife" in 1 Timothy 3:2
by Andy Woods


This paper examines eight possible interpretations of the phrase "husband of one wife" found in 1 Timothy 3:2. The merits and deficiencies of each approach are explored. The paper will conclude that the this phrase does not deal with the candidate's legal married status but rather pertains to fidelity as part of the candidate's character at the time he is considered for the office of elder. Although it is acceptable for the church to examine the candidate's past sins in order to ascertain the present content of his character, it is inappropriate for the church to use 1 Timothy 3:2 as a basis of holding a candidate's past sins against him in isolation of his current character.
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04/23/2007
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Why is "Darwin on Trial"?
by Deb Garland


This article discusses liabilities of evolutionary theory identified by Phillip E. Johnson's book, Darwin On Trial.
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08/25/2004
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04/24/2004
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An Introduction to the Open Theism Controversy
by Andy Woods


This paper provides an introductory overview of the new theological movement known as "Open Theism." Although this new movement impacts one's understanding of several of God's attributes, this paper will specifically focus upon how openness theology impacts one's understanding of God's foreknowledge. This paper will offer a critique of the openness view of divine foreknowledge from a classical theist perspective. The hermeneutical, biblical, historical, and practical issues in the debate will be explored. This paper was presented at a workshop of the Grace Evangelical Society conference held on February 23, 2004.
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12/22/2008
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02/06/2008
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What is the Relationship of the Church to the New Covenant?
by Andy Woods


Exposition of the New Covenant and its relationship to the church has traditionally proven to be a "sore spot" for dispensational interpreters. Because dispensationalism has all too frequently emphasized Scripture's discontinuity at the expense of its continuity, dispensationalists have often had difficulty explaining the New Testament verses that seemingly apply Israel's New Covenant to the church age. This paper will attempt to demonstrate how the New Covenant relates to the church in a way that maintains the continuity as well as the discontinuity between God's programs for Israel and the church. In pursuance of this end, the following three areas will be explored: the Old Testament's presentation of the New Covenant, what the New Testament presents regarding the New Covenant's ratification and relation to the church, and inadequate views some interpreters have offered concerning how the New Covenant relates to the church.
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10/15/2008
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The Use of Hosea 11:1 in Matthew 2:15
by Andy Woods


A straightforward reading of Hosea 11:1 yields merely a historical statement regarding Israel's Exodus experience. Verse 2 corroborates this understanding by highlighting the events of the nation following the Exodus experience. Thus, these verses are merely focusing on the history of the nation rather than the coming messiah. Therefore, at first glance, this passage is not in need of receiving any future fulfilling. However, what makes the passage problematic is that Mathew 2:15 indicates that Hosea 11:1 was fulfilled by events that transpired in the early life of Jesus. In other words, Christ's departure into Egypt to escape the slaughter of the infants by Herod somehow fulfilled the words of Hosea 11:1. What in the context of Hosea 11:1 needed fulfilling when the verse merely looked backward to Israel's historical experiences rather than forward to the coming messiah?
(11)
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12/22/2008
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02/03/2004
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How Do We Know We Have the Author’s Intended Meaning?
by Andy Woods


This article offers a conservative approach regarding where the author's intended meaning is found. The remainder of the article attempts to rebut possible objections raised against this position.
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01/10/2004
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Ten Lies the Church Tells Women
by Andy Woods


Andy responds to Lee Grady's book, 10 Lies the Church Tells Women.
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12/22/2008
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12/22/2003
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A Testimony of Jesus Christ
by Tony Garland


A commentary on the Book of Revelation. The text may also be downloaded for offline viewing.
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12/11/2006
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What is the Identity of Babylon in Revelation 17-18?
by Andy Woods


This paper surveys five prominent approaches for identifying Babylon in Revelation 17-18. These approaches include identifying Babylon as the world, Jerusalem, Rome, an end time religious system, and futuristic, literal, rebuilt Babylon. The author leans toward identifying Babylon as the literal, historical city on the banks of the Euphrates as this view seems to have fewer problems than the other views.
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12/22/2008
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04/14/2006
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The Dispensational Implications of Galations 3:17-19
by Steve Lewis


An examination of the implications of this passage concerning three aspects of dispensationalism: (1) the relationshp between the covenants; (2) the role of Jesus in the fulfillment of the covenants; and (3) the progress of revelation.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 7 No. 22, December 2003. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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09/21/2006
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Theological Presuppositions and the Interpretation of Revelation
by Steve Lewis


While it may be true that there is common ground among evangelical Christians regarding some areas of Bible prophecy, the important question is, "What is the underlying cause for the differences on points of prophecy?" Whatever accounts for the differences may be more significant and far-reaching than the fact that there is agreement on some issues.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 7 No. 21, August 2003. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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12/20/2003
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Does Dispensationalism Teach Two Ways of Salvation?
by Tony Garland


This article explores the accusations made by non-dispensationalists that dispensationalism teaches more than one way of salvation.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 7 No. 20, March 2003. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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The Work of Christ on Our Behalf
by Deb Garland


This article provides a helpful overview of Christ's work on the behalf of those who believe in Him. Key elements of His atoning work are summarized.
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12/22/2008
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The Implications of God's Infinity for "Open" Theism
by Steve Lewis


Proponents of the "Open" view of God claim to believe in God's infiniteness; therefore the implications of the infinity of God will be explored to determine whether they are consistent with the tenets of open theism.

This article was published in The Conservative Theological Journal, Vol. 7 No. 20, March 2003. This article appears by permission of The Conservative Theological Journal which is published by the Conservative Theological Society.
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Why I Believe
by Tony Garland


A short pamplet which discusses scientific and historical evidence for the truth of the Bible. May be freely duplicated for evangelistic use.
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08/26/2004
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