What are the two halves
The New Testament and the Old Testament.
One covenant replaces another covenant which was broken.
There are numerous important covenants (plural). The New Covenant replaces a specific Old Testament covenant.
Mtt. ; Mark ; Luke
The New Covenant - a specific covenant previously mentioned by God.
For the remission of sins.
Dedicated with blood - like the Abrahamic (Gen. ) and the Mosaic (Ex. )
Who was listening?
His Jewish disciples.
What was their context?
Being Jews, their culture was familiar with the OT teaching of God.
Did they have the NT?
No - it had not yet been written. When Jesus said the phrase new covenant they would have understood it on the basis of what the OT revealed concerning covenants in general and this specific covenant in particular.
Many covenants were made with Israel (Rom. ).
As Gentiles, we were strangers to these covenants (Eph. ).
It is important to realize that these covenants were given to Israel. The essential question of the NT is whether and how Gentiles can be saved because they were not recipients of these covenants and promises.
Abrahamic Covenant (Gen. ;
; ; ).
Includes three areas of promise: (1) land (Gen. ; , ; ); (2) seed (Gen. ; ; , ; ); and blessing (Gen. ; , ; ). This is an unconditional covenant (see Gen. ).
Mosaic Covenant (Ex. )
Land Covenant (Deu. ) - founded upon the Abrahamic Covenant land promise.
Davidic Covenant (2S. ) - founded upon the Abrahamic Covenant seed promise.
New Covenant (Jer. ; Eze. ) - founded upon the Abrahamic Covenant blessing promise.
Who made with?
What covenant was broken?
Mosaic Covenant - this did not affect the Abrahamic Covenant, the basis of the New Covenant. See Gal. .
What are some of the
God will put his law in their minds and write it on their hearts. Ever man shall know Him from the least to the greatest. There will be no more need to teach about God for they all will know Him. Their sins will be forgiven (Jer. cf. Mtt. - My blood . . . which is shed . . . for the remission of sins.
What follows upon the promise of
the New Covenant?
God's guarantee that national Israel will continue before Him forever. The New Covenant was originally given to Israel and will not be complete until all Israel knows God. The nation is guaranteed to continue in order to bring about fulfillment.
Isa. - Israel broke the everlasting covenant (Mosaic) necessitating a New Covenant.
Isa. - Isaiah announces that God will make
(future tense) an everlasting Covenant.
The Abrahamic covenant was made circa 2090 B.C. The Mosaic Law was given circa 1450 B.C. The Land Covenant was made circa 1400 B.C. The Davidic Covenant was given circa 1000 B.C. Isaiah is writing circa 700 B.C. Therefore, this covenant cannot be any of the aforementioned. It is the New Covenant which replaces the Mosaic Covenant which Israel broke.
Aspects of the New Covenant, as we saw in Jeremiah, have not been fulfilled.
A day is coming when God will restore Israel to faith in Messiah Jesus and bring about the fulfillment of the New Covenant in relation to national Israel (Rom. , , , ).
1Due to the limited amount of time available for teaching, these notes include passages which are not discussed within the companion audio recording.
2By Biblical covenants we mean covenants which the Scriptures themselves identify as covenants.